Administration and outreach

Module 1: 

The administrative efforts to build ARTEMI as an infrastructrurte are pursued within Module 1, Administration, and outreach. Herein we organize the work, prepare budgets for the Steering group, plan events and organize outreach activities. The module include all node leaders – the management. 


Technical and methodological development 

The technical development in ARTEMI is multifaceted and divided into five different modules (see the organigram). The development that is pursued within these modules represent state-of-the-art in electron microscopy. The method development is pursued by the ARTEMI Project team and efforts are pursued within each module with partial overlap and exchange. 

Each module is headed by a lead university and complemented by others (listed in the solid line box). Additional universities are following the development as early adopters but have no own activities in the particular module (listed in the dashed line box).  

Module 2: Imaging of materials – high resolution and high precision  

The core advantage of advanced electron microscopy is to access site-specific information at the subatomic level, enabling researchers to investigate fundamental materials properties, including imaging of vacancies and interstitials. In this module we combine methods for pursuing high resolution and high precision to accurately describe the atomic structure of a material and correlate it to properties.  

High resolution is essential in all studies of matter but is exceptionally rewarding in low dimensional materials that are identified as key materials in applications for clean energy and carbon capture. Here we pursue methods to achieve better than 0.5 Å resolution at 300 kV and 1 Å at 60 kV and through optical aberration correctors. 

High precision enables an improved description of the crystal structure with determination of the atom and atomic column positions, which is essential for understanding properties of, for example, catalysts or semiconductors. Minute changes in the crystal structure, at surfaces or interfaces, critically affect the material properties. For many applications, available information is not limited by the resolution of the instrument, but by environmental and experimental factors that reduce the quality and quantifiability of the data, and significantly limits the image information. Emerging data techniques offer an approach to overcome some of these limitations, enabling high quality data with an image precision of 1-2 pm 

The module is headed by Linköping University, together with Chalmers. Development herein is critical for low dimensional materials (nanoparticles, 1&2-dimensional materials etc) that find applications that help addressing many of the UN global goals.  

Module 3: Crystallography - structure & phase analysis by 3D & 4D electron diffraction and imaging   

This module offers the state-of-the-art 3D electron diffraction, 3D imaging, and time resolved (4D) electron diffraction. Electron crystallography can be used for studying nano- and microcrystals below the detection level of X-ray diffraction. Crystallography has been pivotal for the development of new materials, pharmaceutics and catalysts.  

SU is internationally leading in electron crystallography, and has developed several techniques and software for 3DED. The 3DED techniques are very powerful for structural and phase analysis, especially for studying polymorphism and phases with minute quantity. During the past few years, the 3DED techniques developed at SU have been applied on samples from more than 50 research groups and 8 companies, ranging from inorganic, organic to protein crystals.  

4D Electron diffraction: Interest is surging in studies of ultrafast and local processes in excited materials, often with unique properties with no analogue in equilibrium systems. The ultrafast electron microscope at KTH is an instrument uniquely fitted for creating, exploring, and understanding novel metastable and transient states in materials, enabling e.g. studies of the dynamics of structural phase transitions, determining the structure of optically excited states in photovoltaic systems, or thermal diffusion at combined nm and ps resolutions in materials relevant for thermoelectric applications. 

The module is headed by Stockholm University, together with KTH and Lund University. Structure determination is of critical importance for understanding all materials. As an example, 3D electron diffraction was identified by Science as one of the ten scientific breakthroughs 2018. 

Module 4: Physics and spectroscopy –physical particles & magnetic properties of individual atoms 

Beyond structure determination through imaging and diffraction, spectroscopic methods are key towards understanding material properties. In this module, we explore the spectroscopic signals from materials down to sub-atomic resolution and through time resolved measurements. The spectroscopic methods include energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX), electron energy loss spectroscopy (EELS) and cathodoluminescence (CL) that give information about composition, valency, dielectric constants, plasmons, magnetic moments, phonons.   

Materials are increasingly tailored with complex 3D structures at the nanoscale, therefore we will pursue the development of 4D tomography, where tomograms contain a full spectrum in each voxel, and push resolution towards the atomic domain. We will further extract magnetic information from materials, including relative orbital to spin magnetic moment is attainable through acquisition of core-level edges by EELS at the sub-nanoscale domain. Further developments include time-resolved Lorentz microscopy for studies of novel transient magnetic structures, optical switching of magnetization and spinwave propagation. This will be enabled through access to the UEM at KTH that will be expanded from current optical excitation schemes to include synchronized RF fields for spin wave generation. 

Finally development of high resolution spectroscopy enables exploration of plasmons, band gaps and phonons. The new TEM at Chalmers reaches 19 meV and enable investigations on quantum structures, nanophotonics, photovoltaics and 2D materials. 

The module is headed by Uppsala University, together with Chalmers and KTH. The materials science community in general would benefit from 3D spectroscopy with better resolution and magnetism measurements at the atomic level is crucial for nanoscale magnetic devices. Nanoscopic quantum metrology is finally an emerging field in quantum computing.  

Module 5: In situ Materials science - dynamic observations of samples subject to applied stimuli 

Correlation of structure and properties at the nanoscale, is essential for any application and for the basic understanding of mechanisms determining materials properties. Within this module the goal is to develop methods that connect the local atomic structure with physical properties measured in situ (electrical, mechanical, optical and thermal). These methods can establish fundamental understanding of the interplay between atomic structure and physical properties and enable a materials processing envelope wherein materials are tailored using electric fields, strain, light and temperature.  

Within ARTEMI and particularly at Chalmers, there is a long tradition in building and using holders for in situ manipulation that can be employed in a multitude of material systems. Therefore, three parallel paths will be pursued in this module. The first is dedicated to the methodology for performing representative in situ and in operando studies as the experiment is miniaturized where joint chip design across nodes is one example. The second is the development of holders that enable new in situ opportunities.  

Chalmers will build holders for in situ simultaneous straining and biasing combined with optical experiments. Chalmers will further extend in situ experiments to low temperatures by adding a double-tilt cooling holder with electrical biasing, enabling studies of polymer materials and of quantum devices. It is important to be able to vary and control the temperature for each possible phase transition, which can change the behaviour.  Holders for in situ manipulation and optical illumination will be further be developed, and used in studies of quantum-, 2D- and photovoltaic materials. Uppsala will explore in situ electrical biasing that enables dynamic observation of current induced phase transformations.  

The module is headed by Chalmers, together with Uppsala and KTH. The module enables studies of fundamental mechanisms in materials of high relevance for quantum computing and electrical components.  

Module 6: In situ Chemistry – dynamic imaging and spectroscopy of reactions with gas and liquid  

Herein we develop methods of decisive relevance to the global goals. In situ experiments enable researchers to explore reactions between samples and flowing gas or liquid, at elevated, pressure, temperature, and/ or bias. Development of these methods enables advanced and fundamental investigations on growth, catalysis, corrosion, electrochemistry, energy conversion, and energy storage.  

 With recent years’ improvements in optics, microscopes have increasingly turned into a platform for in situ experiments. This is exemplified by the environmental TEM (ETEM) at LU, which has paved way for fundamental insights into CVD crystal growth and catalysis. In Lund we will develop CVD processes at the ETEM, with the 9 different gaseous precursors presently available. Reactions take place on a MEMS heater chip in an open holder environment to ensure the best possible resolution, and for conditions mimicking the process in commercial CVD production of materials.  

 Linköping University will approach in situ experiments with a technologically different approach. Recent years’ developments in MEMS technology have enabled the invention of miniature reaction cells wherein dynamical experiments can be conducted in-between two electron transparent membranes. Attainable experiments include direct observations at industrially relevant conditions, of catalytic processes on nanoparticle surfaces, carbon capture, phase transformations, etc. The processes will be captured by direct imaging and spectroscopy.  

 The module is headed by Lund University, together with Linköping University and Uppsala University. Development herein is timely for national initiatives on hydrogen and battery industrialization and for a sustainable society in general.